By Tut Makuei Reth
(OurSouthSudan) —– The extensive and aching journey of South Sudan administration which in every time heavy losses are observed therefore, whenever the new era in full swing the obstacle of destruction just give the impression. Therefore, as an administrator I want to take us back and begin viewing the history from where it began and where we are now.
1822 North Sudan falls under Turko-Egyptian rule. Mohamed Ali of Turkey wanted Negro slaves to strengthen his army. Abortive attempts to extend rule over South Sudan .
1839 Captain Salim penetrates the Sudd and reaches Gondokoro, near Juba. The start of slave raids by European merchants and their armed Gellaba Arab servants.
1881 Unsuccessful attempts to conquer the South Sudan by the Mahdists.
1899 South Sudan and North under British and Egyptian Condominium rule.
1901 The Nuer and Azande wage armed resistance against colonial rule, killing British officers and soldiers and the Governor of Bahr el Ghazal .
1902 Three southern provinces and six northern treated as separate and distinct.
1918 Sunday becomes official day of worship in South Sudan, replacing Friday, which was introduced by Moslem Gellaba slave raiders.
1924 Abortive uprising against Condominium rule led by a South Sudan national, Ali Abdel Latif, probably a descendent of slaves.
1930 Declaration of South Sudan Policy, South Sudan as culturally and racially distinct, would eventually develop as a separate territorial and political entity or be integrated into the British East Africa.
1940 Complete elimination of Arab and Muslim influence in South Sudan
1946 Britain reverses the Southern Policy after agitation against it by the North. Protests against reversal by British administrators in the South.
1947 The Juba Conference held to allay the fears of its administrators in the South. South Sudanese themselves were betrayed by Britain but Both Diu declined and after that he signed the paper with ten figures, which mean ten states of South Sudan.
1951 Constitutional commission formed with only one South Sudanese representative, who proposes a federal arrangement between the South and the North. Both Diu forms the Southern Sudan Party, first ever.
1955 The Party renamed Liberal Party, holds first Conference in Juba, Stansilaus Paysama as President and Both Diu as Secretary-General. They demand for Federation for South Sudan. 1955 The trial of Elia Kuze, the Liberal Member of Parliament, first South Sudan nationalist who led resistance against Gellaba rule in Yambio. The Azande demanded that South Sudan not be ruled by or be dominated by the “false so-called Northern brothers.” Bloody riots erupts in Nzara. 1955 Torit Revolt, first armed resistance in South Sudan against the Gellaba North rule on 18 August. Fearing massacre of South Sudanese by Northern soldiers being flown to the South and worried about their fate by the forced transfer to the North, the Equatorial (Southern) corps mutinied, killing their Gellaba officers. This sparked armed nationalist uprising throughout the Southern region until
1956 Sudan gains independence but Federation rejected by the Northerners.
1957 Government takes over mission schools in the South Sudan.
1958 Power handed to General Abboud by Premier Abdalla Khalil; Forced Islamization and Arabization of South Sudan nationals.
position of Mohammedan Friday as day of rest instead of Sunday in South. Student strikes
against this policy in the South . South Sudan nationalists in exile form the Sudan African Closed Districts National Union(SACDNU), later to become SANU.
1962 Schools in South Sudan strike against government policies and expulsion of Christian missionaries from the South for alleged incitement of South Sudanese against Arabization and Islamization.
1963 Start of Anya-Nya movement, the first liberation army of South Sudan, war against Northern Arabs and independence of the South.
1964 Abboud military government is overthrown by civilians in the North. December 19: First bloody clash in Khartoum between Southerners and Northerners after first ever Southern Minister of Interior, Clement Mboro, fails to return from a much publicized tour to war-ravaged South Sudan; Southerners thought he was killed by the Gellaba.
1965 Round Table Conference in Khartoum between South and North to solve the Southern Problem ends in failure. Start of Gellaba Arab massacres of innocent South Sudanese civilians in Juba, Wau and other towns.
1968 Assassination of William Deng by government troops near Rumbek.
1969 Nimeriy’s Military coup; declares Regional Autonomy for the South.
1972 Addis Ababa Accord between the Anya Nya and Sudan Government.
1975 Revolts by South Sudanese soldiers in Akobo and other barracks, protesting their transfer to the North, in violation of Addis Ababa Agreement.
1976 Capt. Aguet led a mutiny in Wau, fled into exile but was lured back by fellow Southerners and then shot.
1977 National Reconciliation between Nimeriy and Saddiq and Moslem Brotherhood of Turabi, both Arab Islamists leaders were out to dismantle the few privileges that the Addis Ababa Agreement had accorded the Southerners.
1978 Gen. Lagu deposes Abel Alier as President of High Executive Council in popular “wind of change” elections.
1980 Nimeriy decrees changes in South Sudan borders after discovery of huge oil deposits in Bentiu, South Sudan.Gen. Lagu unconstitutionally removed as President in the South, at instigations of Abel Alier.
1981 South protested location of oil refineries in Arab North. Alier returned to Presidency in South, but was soon to be dismissed from power by President Nimeriy. Anya-Nya II resurgence, vows to fight for South Sudan Independence.
1983 May: Mutiny by Southern soldiers in Bor and Pibor, their commanders Kerubino and William Nyon, accused of financial theft.John Garang, in Bor as government mediator, flees with mutineers. SPLA/SPLM formation with the mutineers and Anya Nya II. Nimeriy decrees Redivision of the South (known popularly as KOKORA), in response to popular demands by mostly Equatorians against intolerable Dinka tribal domination and misrule. September: Nimeriy arbitrarily imposes Sharia Law in the Sudan. Those against Kokora and Sharia Law fled to join SPLA.
1984 Colonel Garang, with Mengistu’s support, emerges as undisputed leader of SPLA/M after bloody power struggle with the unprecedented elimination and killings of Akot Atem and Gai Tut, former leaders of Anya-Nya II. Many opponents and especially those agitating for liberation of an independent South Sudan nation will subsequently be incarcerated or killed by the SPLA. Garang announces that SPLA will fight for a “United, Secular Sudan”, while majority of Southerners wanted Independence of South Sudan
1985 Nimeriy overthrown and 1989 Beshir and Turabi Arabist Islamist regime assumes power in Sudan; support in war from China, Iran.
1991 Mengistu, SPLA Garang’s biggest mentor, overthrown in Ethiopia with repercussions. SPLA splits on 28 August, 1991; Riek and Lam Akol accuses Garang of being dictatorial and undemocratic; Garang and Riek each leading opposing ethnic and worst internecine war between Dinka and Nuer; further fragmentation of Riek/Lam’s SPLA-Nassir faction.
1995 North Arab and SPLA opponents join forces in the NDA (National Democratic Alliance).
1997 April Agreement between Riek and Beshir-Turabi; Riek offered unworkable government promise of self-determination. Nuer become alarmed at government’s intention to redeploy Gellaba troops in formerly liberated Nuer regions, rapid extraction of oil deposits in Western Upper Nile, and government’s malicious instigation of political and armed conflicts between Nuer and Dinka SSDF Commanders
1998 Nuer warlord and government proxy, Paulino Matip embarks on campaign to drive civilian population in Western Upper Nile for extension of pipeline south. Completion of construction of the 1,110 km long pipeline to take southern oil north; Chinese troops building pipeline wreck havoc in South Sudan by assisting Gellaba Arabs in rapings and ethnic cleansing. Talisman of Canada, buys out Arakis Energy for control of Southern oil.
1999 Wunlit Dinka-Nuer covenant signed to bring peace between Dinka and Nuer of West Bank of the Nile .
2001 SPLA, signs inexplicable Memorandum of Understanding with Turabi, while himself under house arrest; latest of Garang’s signed agreements with all Northern political parties; Turabi hypocritically calls on young Arab Northerners not to go and die in war for Southern Sudan oil. June: US House of Representative passes Sudan Peace Act to punish those who trade in blood oil and investing in Sudan.
Sefire in Nuba Mountains Region. Machakos Protocol signed between Gellaba Arab North and SPLA. Talks on-going in Kenya under IGAD. Garang unilaterally concedes to Unity between South and Gellaba Arab North, with referendum, (a second choice), for self-determination if Unity not achieved; and Garang meet Bashir. 2002 October; Sudan Peace Act signed by US President Bush.
2003 February; Fighting erupts in Darfur region between govt. and insurgents.2003 September 25; Security Arrangement Agreement signed.
2004 January 7, Naivasha, Kenya: Wealth sharing agreement signed. 2004 May 27, Naivasha, Kenya: Power-sharing, the status of Abyei and the administration of Nuba Mts. and Southern Blue Nile protocols agreements signed.2004 July 30, United Nations Security Council passes Resolution 1556, giving Arab Sudan government 30 days in which to disarm Arab militia and restore security in Darfur.
2005 January 9, Final comprehensive peace agreement signed in Nairobi, Kenya, by Dr. John Garang on behalf of the SPLA/M and Sudan vice president Taha for Arab Sudan.2005, July 30 SPLM/A Leader and First Vice President of Sudan, Dr. John Garang de Mabior died in a helicopter crash between the border of Uganda and Sudan. Garang, who was born in 1945, was finally buried in Juba, on August 6, 2005. Garang is succeeded by his deputy, Salva Kiir Mayardit. Pres. Kiir declared this a holiday called ‘Martyrs’ Day’ in honor of all fallen heroes.
October 11, 2007 President of Government of South Sudan (GOSS), announced the withdrawal of SPLM from the Government of National Unity with National Congress Party partner of Sudan President Omar Bashier.
July 14, 2008 International Criminal Court (ICC) at The Hague in Netherlands (Holland) Prosecutor Moreno Ocampo, charges Jellaba Arab Sudan President Omar Hassan al Bashir for 10 crimes, including genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.
March 4, 2009 ICC issued arrest warrant for Jellaba Arab Sudan President Omar al Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur, but genocide charges dropped. July 22, 2009 The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) in The Hague passed a landmark ruling on Abyei by stating that the ABC (Abyei Border Commission) under the CPA exceeded its mandate; Abyei divided into two parts– the 9 Ngok Dinka to the south and Arab Messeria to the north, as well as controversially awarding the Heglig and Bamboo oilfields to Southern Khordufan in the north.
April 11-15, 2010 National Elections held all over Sudan. SPLM party wins overwhelmingly in spite of serious allegations of fraud and rigging. Salva Kiir sworn in as first elected President of government of South Sudan (GOSS) July, 2010: Formation of the Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC) chaired by northern, Prof. Mohd. Ibrahim Khalil and the Southern Sudan Referendum Bureau, headed by a southerner also as deputy to Khalil. November 15, 2010: Registration starts across South Sudan, North Sudan and seven countries in Diaspora for the South Sudan 2011 Referendum for Self Determination to take place next year, on January 9, 2011. Southerners will vote for either Separation or Unity. December 8, 2010: End of registration for the Southern Sudan Referendum. Nearly 4 million southern Sudanese registered both in South Sudan and in eight other foreign countries and the north. December 14, 2010: The Constitutional Court in Khartoum, accept a petition by north Sudanese lawyers against the SSRC.
January 9-15, 2011: Southern Sudanese in the South and those in the North and eight other countries vote in the South Sudan Referendum; the vote is either for UNITY or SECESSION of the South. FEBRUARY 9/2011; the final results of the Referendum announced. Nearly 99% of South Sudanese voted overwhelmingly to secede for Sudan. Final declaration of independence will be officially announced on July 9/2011. July 9, 2011: the formal independence declaration of the republic of south Sudan July 14, 2011: south Sudan becomes a member of the United Nations in New York. July 28, 2011, South Sudan becomes a member of the African Union (AU)
2012, March 2; South Sudan, Kenya and Ethiopia signed the LAPSSET project to develop Lamu port and build pipeline and railway and road. 2012, April 10 t0 20; South Sudan Army SPLA ordered by Pres. Kiir occupied Heglig (Panthou) oilfield and later withdrew. September 27, 2012, South Sudan president Salva Kiir and Sudan president Omar Bashir signed a peace deal mediated by the African Union High Implementation Panel chaired by ex-South African president Thabo Mbeki as part of UN Security Council mandate. The deal covers resumption of oil exports through Sudan, withdrawal of each countries army from the borders, creation of a demilitarized zone and so-called four freedoms. However, other significant issues like Abyei, border demarcation were unresolved and were deferred.
July 23, 2013, South Sudan president Salva Kiir dissolves his entire cabinet and his long time Vice president Dr. Riek Machar, and replaced by new vice president, James Wani Igga on the 23 August 2013.
December 15, 2014, Pres. Kiir launched a military attack on opponents led by former vice president Riek Machar in Juba. The so-called Republican Guards, mainly consisting of Dinka from the president’s home state, attack and murder Nuer soldiers and civilians, thousands killed in Juba. Machar escaped and launches war against Kiir, capturing successively the towns of Bor, Malakal, Akobo and Bentiu. The towns subsequently recaptured by government forces.
August 17, 2015, Dr. Riek Machar, leader of SPLM/A-In-Opposition agrees and signs new IGAD-PLUS mediated peace while President Kiir postponed signing. August 26, 2015, President Kiir in Juba in presence of presidents Museveni of Uganda, Kenyatta of Kenya, Prime Minister Desalgn of Ethiopia and Sudanese vice-president, unhappily signed the IGAD-PLUS peace deal.
July 7, 2016, Fighting takes place in Juba Presidential Palace between Kiir’s SPLA and First Vice president Riek Machar; Machar and his SPLM/A-IO forces flee from Juba to the bushes. July 12 2016 Dr. Riek Machar demand third forces before returning to Juba, after surviving for second term of assassination, when the fighting erupted outside the palace saw the death of nearly 300 rival troops, with the opposition reportedly losing 37 out of the total 70 bodyguards who accompanied Machar to the palace. President Kiir reportedly had several hundreds of bodyguards deployed around and near the palace at the time. July 23, 2016, Kiir appoints Taban Deng as first vice president to replace Riek Machar in a divided SPLM-IO, as African leaders and UN recommend the deployment of International peace keeping force in South Sudan to rescue August 2015 peace agreement.
September 3, 2016 – Members of United Nations Security Council Visit South Sudan and warned the South Sudan administration against rejecting the 4,000 troops to boast peacekeepers in the country. “We expect the government of South Sudan as the newest member-state to the United Nations to want to end the culture of impunity, to want to end killings and sexual assaults and ethnically-based attacks and political attacks,” They tried to repair for the implementation of broken of August 2015 peace agreement.
September 6, 2016 South Sudanese government under the leadership of President Salva Kiir has come out with contradicting statements less one day after reaching a consensus with the members of the United Nations Security Council to deploy a protection force from countries in the region. The government has instead said it would only accept such deployment if troops contributing countries would not be from the regional countries with which it shares immediate borders. The government rejected her own sisters nations that all the times looking for economic recovery from them who will help them now. Now South Sudan Administration is in in dash form. Who will safe it? And when will it be safe? Those two questions will be our next articles
The author is a Public Administration and Management Student At Mount Kenya University. He can be reached at email@example.com